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AMA's Code of Medical Ethics

Principles of Medical Ethics
1.00 - Introduction
2.00 - Opinions on Social Policy Issues

2.01 — Abortion

2.015 — Mandatory Parental Consent to Abortion

2.02 — Physicians' Obligations in Preventing, Identifying, and Treating Violence and Abuse

2.03 — Allocation of Limited Medical Resources

2.035 — Futile Care

2.037 — Medical Futility in End-of-Life Care

2.04 — Artificial Insemination by Known Donor

2.05 — Artificial Insemination by Anonymous Donor

2.055 — Ethical Conduct in Assisted Reproductive Technology

2.06 — Capital Punishment

2.065 — Court-Initiated Medical Treatments in Criminal Cases

2.067 — Torture

2.068 — Physician Participation in Interrogation

2.07 — Clinical Investigation

2.071 — Subject Selection for Clinical Trials

2.075 — The Use of Placebo Controls in Clinical Trials

2.076 — Surgical “Placebo” Controls

2.077 — Ethical Considerations in International Research

2.078 — Guideline to Prevent Malevolent Use of Biomedical Research

2.079 — Safeguards in the Use of DNA Databanks in Genomic Research

2.08 — Commercial Use of Human Tissue

2.09 — Costs

2.095 — The Provision of Adequate Health Care

2.10 — Fetal Research Guidelines

2.105 — Patenting Human Genes

2.11 — Gene Therapy

2.12 — Genetic Counseling

2.13 — Genetic Engineering

2.131 — Disclosure of Familial Risk in Genetic Testing

2.132 — Genetic Testing by Employers

2.135 — Insurance Companies and Genetic Information

2.136 — Genetic Information and the Criminal Justice System

2.137 — Ethical Issues in Carrier Screening of Genetic Disorders

2.138 — Genetic Testing of Children

2.139 — Multiplex Genetic Testing

2.14 — In Vitro Fertilization

2.141 — Frozen Pre-Embryos

2.145 — Pre-embryo Splitting

2.146 — Research with Stem Cells

2.147 — Cloning–to-Produce-Children

2.15 — Transplantation of Organs from Living Donors

2.151 — Cadaveric Organ Donation: Encouraging the Study of Motivation

2.152 — Solicitation of the Public for Directed Donation of Organs for Transplantation

2.155 — Presumed Consent and Mandated Choice for Organs from Deceased Donors

2.157 — Organ Donation After Cardiac Death

2.16 — Organ Transplantation Guidelines

2.161 — Medical Applications of Fetal Tissue Transplantation

2.162 — Anencephalic Neonates as Organ Donors

2.165 — Umbilical Cord Blood Banking

2.169 — The Ethical Implications of Xenotransplantation

2.17 — Quality of Life

2.18 — Surrogate Mothers

2.19 — Unnecessary Medical Services

2.191 — Advance Care Planning

2.20 — Withholding or Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment

2.201 — Sedation to Unconsciousness in End-of-Life Care

2.21 — Euthanasia

2.211 — Physician-Assisted Suicide

2.215 — Treatment Decisions for Seriously Ill Newborns

2.22 — Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders

2.225 — Optimal Use of Orders-Not-to-Intervene and Advance Directives

2.23 — HIV Testing

2.24 — Impaired Drivers and Their Physicians

2.25 — The Use of Quarantine and Isolation as Public Health Interventions

2.30 — Information From Unethical Experiments

2.40 — Radio Frequency ID Devices in Humans

3.00 - Opinions on Interprofessional Relations
4.00 - Opinions on Hospital Relations
5.00 - Opinions on Confidentiality, Advertising, and Communications Media Relations
6.00 - Opinions on Fees and Charges
7.00 - Opinions on Physician Records
8.00 - Opinions on Practice Matters

8.01 — Appointment Charges

8.02 — Ethical Guidelines for Physicians in Administrative or Other Non-clinical Roles

8.021 — Ethical Obligations of Medical Directors

8.03 — Conflicts of Interest: Guidelines

8.031 — Conflicts of Interest: Biomedical Research

8.0315 — Managing Conflicts of Interest in the Conduct of Clinical Trials

8.0321 — Physicians' Self-Referral

8.04 — Consultation

8.041 — Second Opinions

8.043 — Ethical Implications of Surgical Co-Management

8.045 — Direct-to-Consumer Diagnostic Imaging Tests

8.047 — Industry representatives in Clinical Settings

8.05 — Contractual Relationships

8.0501 — Professionalism and Contractual Relations

8.052 — Negotiating Discounts for Specialty Care

8.053 — Restrictions on Disclosure in Health Care Plan Contracts

8.055 — Retainer Practices

8.06 — Prescribing and Dispensing Drugs and Devices

8.061 — Gifts to Physicians from Industry

8.062 — Sale of Non-Health-Related Goods from Physicians' Offices

8.063 — Sale of Health-Related Products from Physicians' Offices

8.07 — Expedited Partner Therapy

8.08 — Informed Consent

8.081 — Surrogate Decision Making

8.082 — Withholding Information from Patients

8.083 — Placebo Use in Clinical Practice

8.085 — Waiver of Informed Consent for Research in Emergency Situations

8.087 — Medical Student Involvement in Patient Care

8.088 — Resident Physicians' Involvement in Patient Care

8.09 — Laboratory Services

8.095 — Reporting Clinical Test Results: General Guidelines

8.10 — Lien Laws

8.11 — Neglect of Patient

8.115 — Termination of the Physician-Patient Relationship

8.12 — Patient Information

8.121 — Ethical Responsibility to Study and Prevent Error and Harm

8.131 — Professionalism in Health Care Systems

8.132 — Referral of Patients: Disclosure of Limitations

8.14 — Sexual Misconduct in the Practice of Medicine

8.145 — Sexual or Romantic Relations between Physicians and Key Third Parties

8.15 — Substance Abuse

8.16 — Substitution of Surgeon without Patient's Knowledge or Consent

8.17 — Use of Restraints

8.18 — Informing Families of a Patient's Death

8.181 — Performing Procedures in the Newly Deceased for Training Purposes

8.19 — Self-Treatment or Treatment of Immediate Family Members

8.191 — Peers as Patients

8.20 — Invalid Medical Treatment

8.21 — Use of Chaperones During Physical Exams

9.00 - Opinions on Professional Rights and Responsibilities

9.01 — Accreditation

9.011 — Continuing Medical Education

9.0115 — Financial Relationships with Industry in Continuing Medical Education

9.012 — Physicians' Political Communications with Patients and Their Families

9.02 — Restrictive Covenants and the Practice of Medicine

9.021 — Covenants-Not-to-Compete for Physicians-in-Training

9.025 — Advocacy for Change in Law and Policy

9.03 — Civil Rights and Professional Responsibility

9.0305 — Physician Health and Wellness

9.031 — Reporting Impaired, Incompetent, or Unethical Colleagues

9.032 — Reporting Adverse Drug or Device Events

9.035 — Gender Discrimination in the Medical Profession

9.037 — Signing Bonuses to Attract Graduates of US Medical Schools

9.04 — Discipline and Medicine

9.045 — Physicians with Disruptive Behavior

9.05 — Due Process

9.055 — Disputes between Medical Supervisors and Trainees

9.06 — Free Choice

9.065 — Caring for the Poor

9.0651 — Financial Barriers to Health Care Access

9.0652 — Physician Stewardship of Health Care Resources

9.067 — Physician Obligation in Disaster Preparedness and Response

9.07 — Medical Testimony

9.08 — New Medical Procedures

9.09 — Patent for Surgical or Diagnostic Instrument

9.095 — The Use of Patents and Other Means to Limit Availability of Medical Procedures

9.10 — Peer Review

9.11 — Ethics Committees in Health Care Institutions

9.115 — Ethics Consultations

9.12 — Patient-Physician Relationship: Respect for Law and Human Rights

9.121 — Racial and Ethnic Health Care Disparities

9.122 — Gender Disparities in Health Care

9.123 — Disrespect and Derogatory Conduct in the Patient-Physician Relationship

9.124 — Professionalism in the Use of Social Media

9.13 — Physicians and Infectious Diseases

9.131 — HIV-Infected Patients and Physicians

9.132 — Health Care Fraud and Abuse

9.133 — Routine Universal Immunization of Physicians

9.14 — Quality

9.141 — Safe Patient Discharge

10.00 - Opinions on the Patient-Physician Relationship