Opinion 2.22 - Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders
When a patient suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest, attempts should be made to resuscitate the patient, except when cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not in accord with the patient’s expressed desires or is clinically inappropriate.
All patients should be encouraged to express in advance their preferences regarding the extent of treatment after cardiopulmonary arrest, especially patients at substantial risk of such an event. During discussions regarding patients’ preferences, physicians should include a description of the procedures encompassed by CPR. Patients’ preferences should be documented as early as possible and should be revisited and revised as appropriate.
Advance directives stating patients’ refusals of CPR should be honored whether patients are in or out of hospital. When patients refuse CPR, physicians should not permit their personal value judgments to obstruct implementation of the refusals.
If a patient lacks the ability to make or cannot communicate a decision regarding the use of CPR, a surrogate decision maker may make a decision based upon the previously expressed preferences of the patient. If such preferences are unknown, decisions should be made in accordance with the patient’s best interests. If no surrogate decision maker is available, an attending physician contemplating a "Do Not Resuscitate" order (DNR) should consult another physician or a hospital ethics committee, if one is available. (See Opinion 8.081, "Surrogate Decision Making.")
If a patient (either directly or through an advance directive) or the patient’s surrogate requests resuscitation that the physician determines would not be medically effective, the physician should seek to resolve the conflict through a fair decision-making process, when time permits. (See Opinion 2.037, "Medical Futility in End-of-Life Care.") In hospitals and other health care organizations, medical staffs or, in their absence, medical directors should adopt and disseminate policies regarding the form and function of DNR orders and a process for resolving conflicts.
DNR orders, as well as the basis for their implementation, should be entered by the attending physician in the patient’s medical record.
DNR orders and a patient’s advance refusal of CPR preclude only resuscitative efforts after cardiopulmonary arrest and should not influence other medically appropriate interventions, such as pharmacologic circulatory support and antibiotics, unless they also are specifically refused. (See Opinion 2.225, "Optimal Use of Orders-Not-to-Intervene and Advance Directives.") (I, IV, VIII)