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Zika Virus Resource Center

Zika virus

With infection rates of Zika virus increasing rapidly, physicians should be prepared to handle cases of the virus and answer patients' questions. In the continental United States, Zika cases have been confirmed in returning travelers and infections through sexual transmission have been documented. The Florida Department of Health has concluded that a high likelihood exists that Zika virus infections are being caused by bites of local Ades aegypti mosquitoes. As a result, a travel warning has been issued for the Wynwood and Miami Beach areas of Miami-Dade County, Florida. The AMA will update this resource center regularly to provide information to the public, physicians and other health care workers as they seek to learn more.

View CDC/AMA Webinar on Zika Virus

The CDC / AMA webinar "Preparing for Zika Transmission in the U.S." presented by the AMA in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is now available for viewing. Listen to CDC Medical Epidemiologist Susan Hills, MBBS, MTH, present an update on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the current outbreak. CDC Medical Officer Kiran Perkins, MD, MPH, presented on the implications for pregnant women, including CDC's updated interim clinical guidance, before fielding questions from webinar participants.

Access Webinar

Updated Information

CDC Expands Guidance for Travel and Testing of Pregnant Women, Women of Reproductive Age and Their Partners for Zika Virus Infection Related to Mosquito-Born Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade, Florida.

A routine investigation by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has identified the first reported occurrence of female-to-male sexual transmission of Zika virus. Current guidance to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus is based on the assumption that transmission occurs from a male partner to a receptive partner. Providers should report to their local or state health department any patients with illnesses compatible with Zika virus disease who do not have a history of travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission, but who had sexual exposure to a partner who did travel.

Health officials in Utah are investigating the case of an individual who became infected with Zika after having contact with a deceased patient who had a uniquely high amount of virus in the blood. Based on what is known now, the person has not recently traveled to an area with Zika and has not had sex with someone who is infected with Zika or who has traveled to an area with Zika. In addition, there is no evidence at this time that mosquitoes that commonly spread Zika virus are in Utah.

Resources for the Public

What You Need to Know About Zika Virus
Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Frequently Asked Questions About Zika Virus
Videos, fact sheets and other information from the World Health Organization (WHO) that explain what the virus is, which symptoms to look for and how to protect your family

Zika Virus Infection, Prevention and Recommendations for Pregnant Women
Infographics, frequently asked questions, interactive games and more from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO

Zika and Pregnancy
Latest information from the CDC for pregnant women

Information for Parents About Zika Virus
Latest information from the CDC for parents

Zika Virus Disease
Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) patient page from April 13

How to Protect Against Mosquito Bites
Latest information from the CDC

Zika-infected Areas
World map and list of countries and territories with active Zika transmission, provided by the CDC

CDC Issues Advice for Travel to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games
Press release from Feb. 26

Resources for Physicians

Understanding Zika Virus

Zika Virus Information for Health Care Professionals
Includes clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing information from the CDC

Interim CDC Zika Response Plan
Initial response to Zika virus infections in continental U.S. and Hawaii

CDC Zika Action Plan Summit
Presentations and Resources from April 1

Zika and Pregnancy
CDC Vital Signs from April 1

Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women—United States and Territories, May 2016
MMWR from May 20

CDC Changes Reporting of Numbers of Pregnant Women Affected by Zika Virus
CDC media statement from May 20

Male-to-male Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus—Texas, January 2016
CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) from April 15

Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-transmitted Zika Virus Infection—Puerto Rico, 2016
MMWR from April 15

Estimating Contraceptive Needs and Increasing Access to Contraception in Response to the Zika Virus Disease Outbreak—Puerto Rico, 2016
MMWR from March 25

Travel-associated Zika Virus Disease Cases Among U.S. Residents—United States, January 2015–February 2016
MMWR from March 18

Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers—August 2015–February 2016
MMWR from March 4

Transmission of Zika Virus through Sexual Contact With Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission — Continental United States, 2016
MMWR from March 4

Notes From the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from 2 Congenitally Infected Newborns and 2 Fetal Losses—Brazil, 2015
MMWR from Feb. 10

Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas With Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy—Brazil, 2015
MMWR from March 8

Zika Virus Emergency Preparedness and Response
Latest information from the WHO

Zika Virus Infection
Information and resources from the PAHO and WHO

Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas: Region of the Americas
MMWR from Jan. 22

Clinical Guidance

Updated: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus—United States, July 2016
MMWR from July 25

Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure—United States, July 2016
MMWR from July 25

Diagnostic Testing of Urine Specimens for Suspected Zika Virus Infection
CDC Health Advisory from May 25

CPT Codes for Zika-related Imaging and Lab Test Procedures
Last updated April 15

Updated Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age With Possible Zika Virus Exposure—United States, 2016
MMWR from March 25

Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions United States, 2016
MMWR from March 22

Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children With Possible Zika Virus Infection
MMWR from Feb. 19

Recommendations for Donor Screening, Deferral and Product Management to Reduce the Risk of Transfusion-transmission of Zika Virus
FDA guidance Feb. 2016

Updated Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants With Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection
MMWR from Feb. 26

Zika Virus—What Clinicians Need to Know
CDC webinar from Jan. 26

Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak
MMWR from Jan. 22

Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly
MMWR
from Jan. 22

Questions and Answers for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age With Possible Zika Virus Exposure
CDC resource updated Feb. 9

Recognizing, Managing and Reporting Zika Virus Infections in Travelers Returning From Central America, South America, the Caribbean and Mexico
CDC Health Advisory from Jan. 15

Medical Journal Articles

Zika: Worse Than Thalidomide?
JAMA from August 24

Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Zika Virus: What the Radiologist Can Expect to See Prenatally and Postnatally
Radiology Original Research from August 23

Estimating the Number of Pregnant Women Infected With Zika Virus and Expected Infants With Microcephaly Following the Zika Virus Outbreak in Puerto Rico, 2016
JAMA Pediatrics from August 19

Insect Repellents
JAMA from August 16

Zika Virus 6 Months Later
JAMA Viewpoints from August 8

Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys
Science Research Article from August 4

Development and Implementation of a Zika Virus Disease Response Protocol at a Large Academic Medical Center
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness from July 19

Modeling Zika Virus Infection in Pregnancy
New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) from July 13

Zika and the Risk of Microcephaly
NEJM Perspectives from July 7

Congenital Zika virus Syndrome in Brazil: a Case Series of the First 1501 Live Births with Complete Investigation
The Lancet from June 29

Pathology of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Brazil: a Case Series
The Lancet from June 29

Zika Virus and Birth Defects—Reviewing the Evidence for Causality
NEJMfrom May 19

More Evidence Linking Zika Virus to Birth Defects
JAMA Global Health published May 17

On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States
PLOS Current Outbreaks published March 16

Is the United States Prepared for a Major Zika Virus Outbreak? JAMA Viewpoint published April 13

Zika Virus
NEJM from March 30

Pregnancy in the Time of Zika: Addressing Barriers for Developing Vaccines and Other Measures for Pregnant Women
JAMA Viewpoint published March 22

Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro—Preliminary Report
NEJM from March 4

Infectious Zika viral particles in breastmilk
Lancet Correspondence from March 1

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Outbreak Associated With Zika Virus Infection in French Polynesia: a Case-Control Study
Lancet from Feb. 26

Detection and Sequencing of Zika Virus From Amniotic Fluid of Fetuses With Microcephaly in Brazil: a Case Study
Lancet Infectious Disease from Feb. 17

"Pregnancy in the Time of Zika: Addressing Barriers for Developing Vaccines and Other Measures for Pregnant Women"
JAMA Viewpoint published Feb. 24

"Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles"
Commentary on establishing causality, vaccine research, and containment published in JAMA Feb. 24

"What Pediatricians and Other Clinicians Should Know About Zika Virus"
JAMA Pediatrics Viewpoint published Feb. 18

"Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil"
Significant new clinical data on the Zika virus and infants, published online in JAMA Ophthalmology, Feb. 9

"Zika Virus Infection and the Eye"
Commentary on ocular findings in infants, published online in JAMA Ophthalmology, Feb. 9

"The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness"
JAMA Viewpoint published Jan. 27

"Anticipating the International Spread of Zika Virus From Brazil"
Published in The Lancet, Jan. 23

"Zika Virus in the Americas—Yet Another Arbovirus Threat"
Commentary published in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 13 (e-publication ahead of print)

Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus
CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases dispatch from Feb. 2015

Medical Products

Zika Virus Response Updates
Latest from FDA

FDA Allows Use of Investigational Test to Screen Blood Donations for Zika Virus
FDA press release from March 30

Occupational Exposure

Interim Guidance for Protecting Workers From Occupational Exposure to Zika Virus
OSHA and NIOSH guidance from April 22

Research

Potential Research Priorities to Inform Public Health and Medical Practice for Domestic Zika Virus: Workshop in Brief
Institute of Medicine Workshop Summary from Feb. 16

Notice of NIAID's Interest to Highlight High-priority Zika Virus Research Areas
Research notice by the National Institutes of Health from Jan. 22

Vector Control

FDA Releases Final Environmental Assessment for Genetically Engineered Mosquito
FDA from August 5

Interim Recommendations for Zika Vector Control in the Continental United States
CDC from March 18

FDA Announces Comment Period for Draft Environmental Assessment for Genetically Engineered Mosquito
FDA from March 11

Advocacy Letters

AMA Letter to the House, May 26, 2016

AMA Letter to the Senate, May 26, 2016