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The History of African Americans and Organized Medicine

Segregation and racism within the medical profession have, and continue to, profoundly impact the African American community. Yet, the complex history of race in the medical profession is rarely acknowledged and often misunderstood. The AMA Institute for Ethics invited a panel of experts to review and analyze the historical roots of the black-white divide in American medicine. The following is a summary of the panel's findings, along with other resources.

Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) article

JAMA commentary

Segregation, Civil Rights, and Health Disparities: The Legacy of African American Physicians and Organized Medicine, 1910-1968

A Shared Commitment to Ending Disparities in Care
By NMA President, Dr. Willarda V. Edwards and AMA President, J. James Rohack, MD.

Bibliography

Project acknowledgements

1870 National Medical Journal article

American Medical Association archives

The AMA apology to the National Medical Association House of Delegates, July 30, 2008

Slides shown to the National Medical Association House of Delegates, July 30, 2008

American Physicians presentation slides

Background reports

Reviewers

Writing group

Background on the history project